Energy undergirds all aspects of human civilization. Cheap energy is associated with prosperity while shortages indicate difficulties. Costs for sustainable living are dropping, and it is not difficult to visualize a world in which sustainable, distributed energy is widely available at costs, or even cheaper, than what has traditionally been available. Just as wood and coal played central roles in bringing about the industrial revolution, and the ready availability of petroleum enabled the transportation revolution of the 20th century, switching over to renewable primary energy supplies will herald civilization sized changes. The opportunities for economic growth and improvement of the lives of many in the world are tremendous. This talk will highlight progress being made and assess where we are in the transformation. Identifying what are the primary energy sources, and how might these be useful especially to the Air Force from mission capabilities will be addressed by Dr. Doug Dudis of the Air Force Research Labs Energy Office.